Caractérisation de nanoparticules en milieux complexes : Applications à des nanoparticules organiques et métalliques

Abstract : The extensive use of nanomaterials has raised awareness about health issues and their fate in the environment. That is why they are now subject to regulation that has imposed their traceability from their manufacturing to their distribution as the establishment of their characteristics (chemical composition, size, agglomeration state, shape ...). A characterization routine for nanoparticles in suspension was developed. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) fulfills most of the criteria cited before by combining imaging and spectroscopy techniques. Three sample preparation methods were optimized to ensure high quality results : a dry process, rapid freezing to vitrify the sample and the use of an textit{in-situ} liquid TEM holder to prevent any preparation artefact (no phase change). To obtain quantitative analysis, a comparison was made between Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Multi-Angle Light Scattering (MALS), with and without a fractionation system (AF4), and TEM. To support this work, two nanomaterials were analyzed. The first one is a nanoemulsion composed of lipid nanoparticles stabilized by surfactants used as nanocarriers for drug delivery. Their stability after protein interaction was investigate and some size variations were observed. The second material is a powder composed of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used as UV filters in sunscreens. These nanoparticles were analyzed before and after interaction with UV radiation in a climatic chamber to confirm their stability. The different protocols developed in this PhD may be used for the analysis of other nanomaterials.
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Amandine Arnould. Caractérisation de nanoparticules en milieux complexes : Applications à des nanoparticules organiques et métalliques. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAI098⟩. ⟨tel-02067102⟩

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